About LAW Course
Law is a career stream that candidates pursue at undergraduate (UG), postgraduate (PG) or doctorate (PhD) level to practice the legal profession in India. Law as a career is very popular among students in India. The popularity of this stream can be judged from the fact that famous people like Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela as well as the former US President Barack Obama were lawyers.
Scope of law as a career is immense in India. These days, law graduates do not just opt to get dressed in black and white apparels and head to court but also make their presence feel in corporate houses, law firms, law agencies, administrative services and the likes. A career in law requires one to put in a lot of hard work and long working hours. The preferred specialisations in law are either criminal or civil. However, these days other branches are also gaining popularity such as cyber law, patent law as well as corporate law.
To make a career in law at the UG level, aspirants can pursue five-year duration integrated LLB courses such as BA LLB, BBA LLB, BSc LLB or BCom LLB. Candidates can also opt to pursue a three year LLB course after completing their graduation. Apart from this, candidates who wish to study further can obtain a master’s degree (LLM) followed by a doctoral degree (PhD).
Law as a profession is in great demand these days. Due to the changing social and economic circumstances and the ever-increasing regulatory role being undertaken by the government there is a rising demand for the lawyers. Besides being financially lucrative, Law is an adventurous and exciting career option.
Lawyers are held in high esteem in our society, and there remains the faith that when everything else fails, one can still take the path of legal system. In our daily life in one way or other we may come across situations where legal advice is required. In such situation we need the advice of legal professionals who analyse and interpret law properly.
Lawyers advice clients about their legal rights and recommend course of action in a meticulous manner. They also counsel clients and pre legal documents, such as wills and contracts and conduct negotiations on legal matters, and may represent clients in court and tribunal proceedings.
Academic excellence does not count for success in this profession. Professional competency acquired through experience and practice with lawyers is the main benchmark of success.
There are various areas of specialization in this field which one can choose from like :
- Civil Law
- Criminal Law
- Corporate Law
- Taxation Law
- Labour Law
- International Law
- Family Law
- Constitutional Law
- Administration Law
- Patent Law etc.
Law as a Career
The ambition to enter the legal profession is usually drawn from inspiration. Most law aspirants tend to find their stimulus coming either from personal heroes (usually family members), fictional ones (Perry Mason, Alan Shore) or because they feel really drawn by the idea that one person can truly make a difference.
From Mahatma Gandhi to Barack Obama, the list of luminaries who have used this profession as a stepping stone to greatness runs long and wide. Gone are the days when black robes and courtrooms where the bread and butter of lawyers. From swanky corporate offices to jobs in movies and the media, lawyers have moved many moons away from the conventional and now live very much in the real world.
So, the legal profession looks attractive enough, but what kind of person would make a great lawyer. Good communication skills are a given – both oral and written. A lawyer must also be fond of reading because you will need to do a fair bit of research to be effective at your job. However, the most important skill that you need to have is logical reasoning. You need to be able to look at matters objectively and come to your own conclusions. If you are smart, presentable and not scared to voice your opinion, Law is definitely a career you should consider!
Specializations in Law
Listed below are some fields one can specialize in and have a lucrative career
- Civil Law
- Criminal Law
- Corporate Law
- Taxation Law
- Labour Law
- International Law
- Family Law
- Constitutional Law
- Administration Law
- Patent Law etc
Career options after Law
The role of a lawyer in today’s era has completely evolved and moved many moons away from black robes and white collars to swanky corporate offices and jobs in movies and the media. Law, for a layman, means a system of rules and guidelines, legally enforceable. But as a profession, it means lots more and encompasses various fields such as litigation, media, IP, academics, etc.
Lawyers are the most sought after people by corporations and individuals, leaving a dearth of lawyers when looked up against the demand.
As law incorporates diverse fields, it opens various options for law graduates. The demand for savvy law school graduates, with the requisite skills to handle key positions at leading organizations across diverse sectors, has surged dramatically. Various job opportunities are also available for law graduates in the government sector.
Mentioned below are some of the sought after and lucrative career options one can choose from after pursuing law
The traditional career path is to “practice law” in the courts. But it is essential for any fresh graduate to learn the ropes under a Senior Counsel. The graduates are now supposed to qualify a Bar Exam before they join the Courts of Law. Litigation provides a wide range of employment options in both private and public spheres. You may specialize in a particular field of law such as Taxation, Constitution, Family, etc. You can choose to focus on appellate work, trial-level practice, civil litigation or criminal cases.
You may work with a company/corporate entity as an in-house legal counsel, advising on legal matters related to its business. An in-house counsel plays an important role in drafting, vetting and negotiating contracts; ensuring and monitoring compliance with rules and laws; and handling legal disputes.
Private Sphere: One may join Multi-National Corporations, Private companies, Private Banks, etc.
Public Sphere: Counsels are also required in Government Agencies, Public Sector Undertakings, Public and Nationalized banks, etc. These government organizations usually recruit lawyers through a written competitive exam followed by an interview.
These are business entities engaged in the practice of law. A noticeable trend that has emerged in the last few years is to shift from a solo practice to well-organized law firms, which comprise several lawyers working together as one entity. As part of a law firm, one advises clients about their legal rights and recourses as well as other legal matters
Listed below are some of the leading law firms of the country
- Amarchand Mangaldas
- AZB & Partners
- J Sagar Associates
- Khaitan & Co
- Luthra & Luthra
- Desai & Diwanji
- Singhania & Partners
- Titus & Co
- Wadia Ghandy & Co
- Lakshmi Kumaran & Sridharan
- Economic Laws Practice
- Vaish & Associates
A sizeable number of law school graduates join Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) that work for social causes. If you are passionate about socio-legal issues, then this is the right avenue for you. One may work with NGOs and Civil Society Organizations on issues based on environmental protection, gender concerns, caste discrimination, employment, working conditions, marginalization of various sections of the society, etc.
Law school graduates are also offered opportunities to work with international organizations such as the United Nations and with international tribunals like International Court of Justice, International Criminal Court, etc.
Judicial Services / Civil Services
The State Judicial Services Examination organized by the High Courts for their respective states is a safe and sound option for those of you, who wish to pursue a stable government career. One may also opt for the Civil Services Examination conducted by the Union Public Service Commission, which is the most prestigious examination in the country.
Legal Process Outsourcing
Legal Processing Outsourcing (LPO) is the delegation of core legal functions like making first drafts of cases, compliance work, legal research, etc. to an external counsel. The assigned task is completed on the basis of set parameters and fixed timelines. You can become an important part of reputed MNCs by forging a career in LPO.
A career that not only allows you to pursue your intellectual interests and work on research projects, but also offers a wide degree of flexibility and autonomy and pays you to read, talk and think?
A judicial clerkship is an extremely valuable experience for students interested in either litigation or transactional work; it provides invaluable insights into the workings of the legal system. Law clerks act as legal assistants whose duties vary from court to court and judge to judge.
Media and LAW
As professionals, both journalism and law are intertwined as they require superior research and writing skills as well as a critical knowledge of the government and the legal system. Legal journalism covers legal proceedings in courts, arbitration events, criminal matters, etc., which are disseminated to the public.
Legal Publishing: Lawyers get an opportunity to work as editors for various types of print and electronic media. It is a good option for those with a knack for writing.
Law Reporting: One can take up a career as a law reporter with TV channels and newspapers. Ranging from high profile cases to concerns related to social issues and human rights, a new path for lawyers has opened up in this field.
9 Best Career Options for Law Graduated in India
A career in law can be prestigious, intellectually challenging, personally fulfilling and financially rewarding. Therefore law is considered as one of the elite professions. It is often said- “You can do anything with a law degree…..” Traditionally, a law student was expected to practice litigation after graduating from the law school. However, with time, the career opportunities available to law graduates increased. Now, career in law opens up a plethora of possibilities. This makes it difficult for the law graduates to determine which career path to take. The following are the nine best career options available to law graduates in India. Let’s see what law as a career has in store for law graduates!
LITIGATION AS AN INDEPENDENT PRACTITIONER
Litigation involves representing clients in the court of law. There are certain requirements which you need to fulfil1 before practicing in the court. These include, an LL.B. degree, the ‘Certificate of Practice’ after appearing the All India Bar Exam and enrollment in the Bar Council of the state where you wish to practice. This process makes you an “advocate”!
Certain qualities give you an upper hand as an advocate. These include, firstly, the ability to communicate with the client, secondly, the flair of persuasiveness (this helps in creating an impact on the presiding Judge) and lastly, honed organizational and managerial skills (as litigation involves getting loads of paperwork completed on time).
- You are your own boss
- You decide how to get things done and in what pace
- A lot of time and effort is required to establish yourself
- You have to start from scratch
- You tend to be financially unstable in the initial years of practice
One can also enter the field of litigation through a law firm. Law firm is a partnership firm which hires legal professionals to represent clients. A law firm either specializes in one area of practice or practices in different fields.
It is a trend now that law undergraduates intern under one law firm over a period of internship breaks and eventually, the law firm provides them pre-placement offer (PPO). This is a win-win situation for both the parties because the law firm hires a person who is well acquainted with the functioning of the firm and the expectations attached to it and the graduate gets the employment opportunity served in a platter.
In a law firm, you can either do the legal research, drafting and paper work or represent the client in the court. For the latter, you are required to be an advocate first.
- Stable remuneration
- Organized procedure and set-up for everything
- A lot of work burden
- You need to get things done the way your senior wants
- Late working hours
Every company or business entity carries on their day-to-day practices in which legal intricacies are involved. Be it formulation of a contract, or advise on the legal implication of any action, the advise of a legal professional is often appreciated.
The work in the legal department of a corporate office involves drafting contracts, negotiations, advising on matters relating to mergers, insolvency, ensuring corporate compliances etc.
One has to search for a vacancy in the legal department of a company and then apply accordingly. This is mostly done by visiting their official website and emailing the application documents to the HR Manager of the company.
- Good income
- Stable working hours
- Less workload
- Monotonous work
- Continuous desk job
- The work profile is limited to the corporate sector
Another career option in law for fresh graduates is the judiciary. This includes appearing for Judicial Services Examination of the respective states, and if selected, act as a Civil Judge or a Judicial Magistrate.
The examination includes questions relating to current affairs, English, substantive and procedural civil and criminal law, property law, contract law etc.
- Decent starting salary
- Increase in salary with up-gradation of post
- Other government perks like allowances, government accommodation, official vehicle etc.
- Limits on public behaviour
- Monotonous work
- Constant public scrutiny
- Limited social life
ACADEMICS AND RESEARCH
Academics and research as a career in law in India include pursuing LL.M. and Ph.D. in your area of interest and joining a law school as an Assistant Professor of Law.
The best-suited students for pursuing their legal career in academia are the ones who have performed really well in their undergrad and are inclined towards teaching and research.
LL.M. can be pursued either domestically or internationally. You are required to appear for CLAT for Post Graduates for pursuing LL.M. in India in one of the National Law Universities. On the other hand, you are required to give one of the English proficiency tests (like TOEFL, IELTS) and apply to the respective colleges/ universities for pursuing LL.M. from outside India.
- Decent salary
- The constant learning experience
- Flexible working hours
- Less work burden
- Monotonous job (if you are not really into teaching)
- Expectations to discharge non-academic functions
- Lack of funding for legal research in India
Media and journalism is another career option for law graduates as legal education helps you to improve your writing, narration, and researching skills. These skills are indispensable in the world of journalism. Furthermore, you will always have leverage in reporting law-related matters.
- Decent pay
- Intellectually challenging
- Helps in developing contacts with people of different fields
- Moderate salary
- Limited career growth
- Limited to the four walls of the court
Law graduates often consider civil services as a lucrative career option. The Union Public Services Commission (UPSC) and the State Public Services Commission (SPSC) conduct the Civil Services Examinations every year.
Since a significant portion of the syllabus (law-related) is covered in their undergraduate studies, law graduates have an upper hand in the civil services examinations.
- The reputation as a result of being a civil servant
- Hefty remuneration
- The perks of being a public servant like government accommodation, official vehicle, travel allowances etc.
- Lots of hard work
- Over attentiveness
- Office politics in bureaucracy
A Public Prosecutor is the person who represents the victim, on behalf of the state, in a criminal matter.
The following is the eligibility criteria for the post of public prosecutor in India-
- Age group of 35-45 years
- A law degree
- Minimum 7 years of practice in law as an advocate
- Cleared the examination conducted by the PSC for the post of public prosecutor, and
- Cleared the interview round
- Fixed monthly salary (not on a case-by-case basis)
- Government perks
- Overburdening of cases
- Often the salary provided in much lesser compared to the workload
JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL (JAG) OFFICER
The Major who is the legal and judicial Chief of the Army holds the post of JAG in the Indian Army. A JAG officer assists the presiding officers of the court-martial in interpreting and applying military laws.
The requirements for the post of JAG officer are-
- Indian national
- Minimum 55% in LL.B.
- Aged between 21-27 years
- Eligible for registration in Bar Council of India or State Bar Council
Applicants are required to apply online if there is a call for recruitment. The next step involves the shortlisting of candidates. Two psychological aptitude tests (interview) and a medical fitness test are conducted at the designated test centres all across India for the shortlisted candidates.
- Hefty pay
- Decent stipend during the training period
- Government perks and allowances
- Difficult to get through
Any career in law has its own benefits and disadvantages. One option might fit someone really well and prove to be ill-fit to the other. Ultimately, it all boils down to how well you adjust to the system. Therefore, you should always try your hand at whatever appeals to you.
Different Roles, Different Names
- Criminal Lawyer: Specialises in criminal laws CrPC, IPC, Evidence Act and various other penal laws.
- Civil Litigation Lawyer: Specializes in civil laws e.g. taxation laws, excise laws.
- Legal Analyst: Works for corporate firms or law firms and analyses laws pertaining to the sphere of the company and its operation.
- Document Drafting Lawyer: Specialises in drafting various documents containing agreements, terms and conditions, case material, etc.
- Legal Journalist: Covers crime beats, legal proceedings in courts, arbitration courts, international courts and arbitration events.
- Legal Advisor: Offers consultancy to corporate firms regarding their legal obligations, duties, legal relations with other firms.
- Government Lawyer: Works for the government and in close coordination with the police.
- Judge: Offers judgment after conducting the court proceedings and hearing al the concerned parties.
B.A. LL.B and B.B.A. LL.B: Key Difference
BA LLB is an integrated law programme of the undergraduate level. It is covered over a period of five years and the course is an amalgamation of arts and law. Among the most sought after law courses, BA LLB is offered in almost all the law institutes of the country. Candidates have to either give an entrance exam or get selected through merit in order to get a seat in the course. BA LLB comprises subjects of both law and arts. Innumerable job opportunities await students of this programme as soon as they complete their degree.
BBA LLB is also an undergraduate integrated law programme which has a duration of five years. However, unlike BA LLB, the subjects that comprise the curriculum of BBA LLB are that of management, business subjects, and law. BBA LLB is a relatively new course in the law field but that has not been an obstacle in its increasing demand. Due to its high popularity, some top law colleges including the National Law Universities (NLUs) have also started offering the course of BBA LLB.
The main difference between BA LLB and BBA LLB is that their syllabus varies with respect to the degree or law or business administration. The subjects of law are the same in both the programmes but apart from that, BA LLB covers the subjects of humanities while BBA LLB includes management and business studies subjects. However, the career opportunities after completing both these courses remain the same.
B.A. LL.B vs B.B.A LL.B: Which Course is Better?
Both BA LLB and BBA LLB are unique courses in themselves and there cannot be made any comparison between them because their similarities are way more than their differences. With the career prospects being similar, the only difference that matters is the interest of the candidate.
Students who wish to make a career solely in law and want to practice law should opt for BA LLB. It will be a good choice because the subjects of BA are relatively easy which will help candidates in focusing more on the law subjects. They will also get time to do internships and other activities that will benefit their career in law. Candidates can also pursue post graduation and choose the area in which they wish to specialise. Fields like taxation, accounting, business law, criminal law, etc. are some top LLM (Master of Law) specialisations that students opt for. The courses like Company Secretary (CS), Chartered Accountant (CA), ICWAI etc. are meant for these specialisations.
If a candidate has the ambition of working in the management and business fields then BBA LLB will prove to be more advantageous for him/ her. Several law aspirants mainly opt for corporate law, mergers and acquisitions, etc. as their target is to get into corporate law. The avenues that open in this field are quite lucrative and abundant.
B.A. LL.B Syllabus
The syllabus of BA LLB is what differentiates the course from that of BBA LLB in the first place. The curriculum includes subjects of the Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree along with the subjects of the degree of Bachelor of Law (LLB). The detailed syllabus of BA LLB has been mentioned in the table below. However, the pattern and subjects are liable to vary from college to college.
|Sociology||Law of Contracts|
|English||Legal Method and Introduction to Legal System|
|Law of Torts||Jurisprudence|
|Indian Society||Labour Laws|
|Indian Political System||International Relations|
|Indian Penal Code Updated||Principles Of Taxation Law|
|Law of Evidence||Corporate Law|
|The Code of Criminal Procedure||Code of Civil Procedures|
|Constitutional Law||Law of Evidence|
|Administrative Law||CPC and Law of Limitation|
|Intellectual Property Rights Law||Environmental Law|
|Banking Law and Negotiable Instruments||International Trade Law|
|Judicial Process and Interpretation of Statutes||Cyber Law|
|Human Rights, International Humanitarian and Refugee Law||Law of Insurance|
|Legal Methods||History of Legal and Constitutional Development in India|
|Economics and Law||Court Management and Practical Training|
|International Law||Law and Poverty|
|Law of Property||History|
|Merger, Acquisition and Competition Laws||Professional Ethics, Professional Accounting|
|System and Bar-Bench Relationship|
B.B.A. LL.B Syllabus
Candidates who pursue the course of BBA LLB have to study the curriculum of both management and law fields of the undergraduate level. The syllabus of BBA LLB differs from that of BA LLB only in terms of the subjects of Bachelor of Business Administration. The following table contains all the major subjects taught under the degree of BBA LLB.
|Contracts (General Principles and Specific Relief Act)||Legal Methods and Legal Systems|
|CPC and Law of Limitation||Crime and Punishment|
|Operational Management||Public International Law|
|Company Law||Law of Intellectual Property Rights|
|Labour Law||Direct Taxation|
|Family Law||Interpretation of Statutes|
|Competition Law||Drafting, Pleading, and Conveyancing|
|Private International Law||Law of Torts|
|Legal Language and Art of Advocacy||MV Act and Consumer Protection|
|Functional Management||Law of Property, Equity and Trusts|
|Law of Evidence||Law of International Trade|
|Indirect Taxation||Arbitration and ADR Law|
|Administrative Law||Environmental Law|
|Legal Methods||Law and Language|
|Professional Ethics||Legal History|
|Basic Principles of Accounting||Principles and Practices of Management|
|Organisational Behaviour||Cost and Management Accounting|
|Business Economics||Cost and Management Accounting|
|Fundamentals of Marketing Management||Human Resource Management|
|Strategic Management||Corporate Accounting|